Can CBD oil contain THC?
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- The relationship between CBD and THC
- Will CBD oil with trace amounts of THC influence a drug test?
If you take CBD oil, will you run the risk of ingesting THC?
It’s a question asked more frequently than ever, as CBD oil formulas are popping up in spas, major retailers, online shops, and major pharmacies across the country.
The second-most-prominent cannabinoid of the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) has become valued in recent years for being non-intoxicating — as opposed to intoxicating tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cannabinoid responsible for the cannabis “high” — while also offering a variety of potential health benefits. Many consumers who take CBD oil say they do so because they want the medicinal benefits associated with cannabis without the effects of THC.
So for these consumers, the question inevitably arises — Does CBD oil contain THC?
It’s possible to take CBD oil that has trace amounts of THC, which you’re unlikely to sense any intoxicating effects. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
The short answer is, yes, it’s possible to take CBD oil that has trace amounts of THC, which you’re unlikely to notice. Understanding why, and how to avoid it, requires a basic knowledge of what CBD oil is, how it’s extracted, and how it works in your body.
Products labeled as CBD oil could be one of the following:
- RawCBD oil: Pure CBD distillate that contains only CBD and no other compounds.
- CBD hemp oil: High-CBD oil extracted from hemp, which in the U.S. is legally defined as having less than 0.3% THC.
- Full-spectrum extract: Oil extracted from hemp or cannabis that contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids, including THC. Full-spectrum extract from hemp may be called “full spectrum CBD oil.”
In short, whether CBD oil contains THC depends on how it is made. Raw CBD oil is an isolate, so it won’t have any trace amounts of any other cannabis compounds, including THC. CBD oil extracted from hemp may have trace amounts, and there are high-CBD/low-THC concentrates, oils, and tinctures available in legal cannabis markets. If you want to avoid THC, look closely at the labels on CBD products you’re thinking of buying, and read all information relating to dosages and methods of extraction.
The relationship between CBD and THC
Maybe you came to this article because you want to try CBD oil, but completely avoid any potentially adverse or intoxicating effects of THC. If this is the case, you probably have nothing to worry about. Trace amounts of THC are very unlikely to produce any noticeable effect.
If you’re open to trying cannabis products that are high in CBD and low in THC, you may be interested to know that CBD has the potential to mitigate the intoxicating and potentially adverse effects of THC, while THC may contribute to or enhance the therapeutic effects of CBD. THC and CBD elicit responses from the human body by binding to cannabinoid receptors.
CBD has the potential to mitigate the intoxicating and potentially adverse effects of THC, while THC may contribute to or enhance the therapeutic effects of CBD. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Both cannabinoids bind to the body’s CB1 receptors. THC activates the CB1 receptor, while CBD inhibits it. Trace amounts of THC in CBD oil are very unlikely to exhibit any of its effects relative to CBD. If you’re interested in benefiting from the combined effects of THC and CBD, otherwise known as the entourage effect, begin with high-CBD/low-THC cannabis products. Cannabis high in THC and low in CBD may be even more intoxicating than THC alone, according to an Australian study.
Will CBD oil with trace amounts of THC influence a drug test?
While there isn’t necessarily a guarantee that the trace amounts of THC in CBD oil won’t show up on a drug test, drug testing guidelines for the federal workplace now include a cutoff value to avoid a positive test for trace amounts of THC. Though different types of drug tests vary in their thresholds of THC detection, it’s highly unlikely that any of them will pick up trace amounts. If you want to be completely sure that your CBD oil won’t result in a positive drug test, seek out raw CBD oil, CBD distillate, or other pure-CBD products.
Can CBD oil contain THC? Copy article link to clipboard. Link copied to clipboard. Contents The relationship between CBD and THC Will CBD oil with trace amounts of THC
Does CBD Show Up on a Drug Test?
Cannabidiol (CBD) shouldn’t show up on a drug test.
However, many CBD products contain trace amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main active ingredient.
If enough THC is present, it will show up on a drug test.
This means that in rare cases, using CBD might lead to a positive drug test. It all depends on the product’s quality and composition.
Read on to learn how to avoid a positive drug test result, what to look for in CBD products, and more.
Most CBD products aren’t regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As a result, it’s difficult to know what’s in them — even if these products are legal in your state.
Factors such as where the CBD extract comes from and how it’s harvested might make THC contamination more likely. Certain types of CBD are less likely to have THC in them than others.
CBD comes from cannabis, a family of plants. Cannabis plants contain hundreds of naturally occurring compounds, including:
Their chemical composition varies according to the plant strain and variety.
Although marijuana and hemp products are both derived from cannabis plants, they contain different levels of THC.
Marijuana plants typically contain THC in varying concentrations. The THC in marijuana is what produces the “high” associated with smoking or vaping weed.
In contrast, hemp-derived products are legally required to contain less than 0.3 percent THC content.
As a result, hemp-derived CBD is less likely to contain THC than marijuana-derived CBD.
Plant variety isn’t the only factor. Harvesting and refinement techniques can also change which compounds appear in CBD.
CBD extracts are typically labelled as one of the following types.
Full-spectrum CBD extracts contain all of the compounds that occur naturally in the plant they were extracted from.
In other words, full-spectrum products include CBD alongside terpenes, flavonoids, and other cannabinoids such as THC.
Full-spectrum CBD products are typically extracted from the marijuana subspecies.
Full-spectrum marijuana-derived CBD oil may contain varying amounts of THC.
Full-spectrum hemp-derived CBD oil, on the other hand, is legally required to contain less than 0.3 percent THC.
Not all manufacturers disclose where their full-spectrum extracts come from, so it can be difficult to assess just how much THC may be present in a given product.
Full-spectrum CBD is widely available. Products range from oils, tinctures, and edibles, to topical creams and serums.
Like full-spectrum CBD products, broad-spectrum CBD products contain additional compounds found in the plant, including terpenes and other cannabinoids.
However, in the case of broad-spectrum CBD, all of the THC is removed.
Because of this, broad-spectrum CBD products are less likely to contain THC than full-spectrum CBD products.
This type of CBD is less widely available. It’s most often sold as an oil.
CBD isolate is pure CBD. It doesn’t contain additional compounds from the plant it was extracted from.
CBD isolate typically comes from hemp plants. Hemp-based CBD isolates shouldn’t contain THC.
This type of CBD is sometimes sold as a crystalline powder or a small, solid “slab” that can be broken apart and eaten. It’s also available as an oil or tincture.
Drug tests screen for THC or one of its main metabolites, THC-COOH.
According to Mayo Clinic Proceedings from 2017, federal workplace drug testing cut-off values were established to avoid the possibility that trace amounts of THC or THC-COOH would trigger a positive test.
In other words, passing a drug test doesn’t mean that there isn’t any THC or THC-COOH present in your system.
Instead, a negative drug test indicates that the amount of THC or THC-COOH is below the cut-off value.
Different testing methods have different cut-off values and detection windows, as listed below.
Urine testing for cannabis is common, especially in the workplace.
In urine, THC-COOH must be present at a concentration of 50 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) to trigger a positive test. (A nanogram is approximately one-billionth of a gram.)
Detection windows vary a lot according to dose and frequency of use. In general, THC metabolites are detectable in urine for approximately 3 to 15 days after use.
But heavier, more frequent cannabis use can lead to longer detection windows — more than 30 days, in some cases.
Blood tests are far less common than urine tests for drug screening, so they’re unlikely to be used for workplace testing. This is because THC is quickly eliminated from the bloodstream.
It’s only detectable in plasma for up to five hours, though THC metabolites are detectable for up to seven days.
Blood tests are most often used to indicate current impairment, for instance, in cases of driving under the influence.
In states where cannabis is legal, a THC blood concentration of 1, 2, or 5 ng/mL suggests impairment. Other states have zero-tolerance policies.
Currently, saliva testing isn’t common, and there are no established cut-off limits for detecting THC in saliva.
A set of 2017 recommendations published in the Journal of Medical Toxicology suggest a cut-off value of 4 ng/mL.
THC is detectable in oral fluids for around 72 hours, but may be detectable for much longer with chronic, heavy use.
Hair testing isn’t common, and there are currently no established cut-off limits for THC metabolites in hair.
Private industry cut-offs include 1 picogram per milligram (pg/mg) of THC-COOH. (A picogram is about one-trillionth of a gram.)
THC metabolites are detectable in hair for up to 90 days.
There are several potential reasons why CBD use might lead to a positive drug test result.
There is potential for cross-contamination during the CBD manufacturing process, even when THC is present only in trace amounts.
Cross-contamination may be more likely for manufacturers preparing products that contain CBD only, THC only, or a combination of the two.
The same is true in stores and at home. If CBD oil is around other substances that contain THC, cross-contamination is always a possibility.
Secondhand exposure to THC
Although it’s unlikely that you’ll receive a positive drug test result after exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke, it’s possible.
Some research suggests that how much THC you absorb through secondhand smoke depends on the potency of the marijuana, as well as the size and ventilation of the area.
CBD products aren’t consistently regulated, which means that there typically isn’t a third party testing their actual composition.
A 2017 study from the Netherlands evaluated the accuracy of the labels provided on 84 CBD-only products purchased online. The researchers detected THC in 18 of the products tested.
This suggests that product mislabeling is fairly common in the industry, although more research needs to be done to confirm if this is also true for American CBD products.
Cannabidiol (CBD) shouldn’t show up on a drug test. However, many CBD products contain trace amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main active ingredient. If enough THC is present, it'll show up on a drug test. Here's how much can be found in each CBD type, how to find a pure CBD product, and more.