Can you have an allergic reaction to CBD oil?
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- CBD oil overview
- Allergies in the body
- Allergic reactions to CBD oil
- Can CBD oil help with allergies?
Whether it’s sniffling, watery eyes, itching, or asthma, many of us are all too familiar with symptoms of allergies.
According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, allergies are the No. 6 cause of chronic illness in the United States. To narrow that down,there were 19.9 million adults diagnosed with hay fever in 2017, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is estimated that 32 million Americans live with food allergies; more than 170 foods may lead to allergic reaction.
Considering the increasing awareness and use of cannabidiol (CBD) and the existing potential for pollen and food allergies, allergy sufferers may wonder whether they are at risk for an allergic reaction to CBD oil or whether CBD can provide treatment or relief for other types of allergic reactions.
Though there’s not much in the way of allergy research specifically for CBD oil at this point, the cannabis plant itself has been linked to allergic reactions.
“Marijuana is a plant and produces pollen and one can become allergic to the pollen and the plant, especially if one has pre-existing allergic tendencies,” said Dr. William S. Silvers, clinical professor of medicine in allergy and immunology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.
That being said, only male marijuana plants produce pollen, and are exceedingly rare in cannabis and hemp production because they produce less oil and CBD than female plants. Therefore, a consumer’s exposure to pollen would be extremely rare.
CBD oil overview
CBD is the second-most-prominent cannabinoid derived from the cannabis plant, after the intoxicating cannabinoid THC. CBD oil, extracted from marijuana or industrial hemp, has gained popularity for its potential benefits for a number of conditions, including inflammation, arthritic pain, depression, seizures, and anxiety.
There’s not much in the way of allergy research specifically for CBD oil, but the cannabis plant itself has been linked to allergic reactions in some people. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Though research is still limited in regards to many supposed benefits, in 2018 the FDA approved Epidiolex, a CBD oral solution, to treat seizures associated with two severe types of epilepsy, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Allergies in the body
A properly functioning immune system works to protect the body from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and attack these unwanted microorganisms in order to help prevent disease. In the case of allergies, the immune system reacts to plant pollen and other substances in the environment to trigger the body’s defense mechanisms. The result, depending on the type of allergy, can be a variety of symptoms, including itchy eyes, runny nose, asthma, hives, skin itching, or more severe reactions such as anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening.
Allergic reactions to CBD oil
Humans commonly experience allergic reactions to many kinds of plant pollen. However, only male cannabis plants produce pollen, whereas female plants are more widely used for oil and cannabinoid production. Large-scale industrial hemp fields may include a variety of mature males (pollen) as well as fertilized females (oil and seeds). The impact of hemp pollen on everyday consumers, as well as the communities that work and live near these production facilities, has not been studied.
People can also develop allergies to some of the terpenes found in cannabis. For instance, researchers from the Duke University School of Medicine found that about 20% of the 100 people they tested had an allergic skin reaction to linalool, whereas 8% had reactions to limonene. These kinds of contact allergies may not be common in the general population, but individuals who are employed in the production of cannabis products and CBD oil could be more at risk.
In addition to the skin, the lungs are another target for allergic reactions to terpenes. Assessing the risk is somewhat complicated because some terpenes are irritants, whereas others, such as eucalyptol, may actually provide a protective, anti-inflammatory role and might help to control inflammatory diseases like asthma and COPD.
Dr. Gordon Sussman, an allergist in Canada and professor at the University of Toronto, said there is very little published research on CBD oil allergies.
“It’s an unknown area at this point,” he said. “But we know that cannabis sativa is an allergen and we know that it’s a common allergen.”
Humans commonly experience allergic reactions to many kinds of plant pollen. Only male cannabis/hemp plants produce pollen. Most cannabis products, including CBD oil, are made using female cannabis plants. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
He said that cannabis allergies, like other forms of allergies, can worsen as exposure to the allergen continues. Most people with cannabis allergies suffer from a runny and stuffy nose (rhinitis), eye irritation (conjunctivitis), and sometimes wheezing, Sussman explained. But there have been cases of more severe reactions such as anaphylaxis, which have primarily resulted from ingestion of hemp seeds.
According to a letter entitled “Marijuana and stoned fruit,” written by medical doctors from the University of California, San Diego, and published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology on Feb. 2, 2018, a 24-year-old man who smoked marijuana daily visited their allergy clinic two weeks following an anaphylactic reaction after eating yogurt with hemp seeds.
“This was his first known ingestion of hemp seeds. Immediately after consumption, he developed oral pruritus [itching] that progressed to shortness of breath, facial swelling, and pre-syncope [sensation prior to fainting],” the letter stated.
Those with food allergies may also be susceptible to cross-reactivity.
“You can have a cross-reaction with certain foods that share certain antigens, certain components, with the cannabis plant itself,” Silvers said.
Such foods may include tomatoes and stone fruits containing pits such as peaches, he said. It’s a similar cross-reactivity to what is seen in people with ragweed allergies who might experience symptoms such as itchy mouth if they eat fruit in the melon family, he added.
“The same thing goes with cannabis and tomatoes and peaches and almonds and a number of other foods … eggplant, grapefruit, apples,” Silvers said.
There is no clinical evidence CBD oil can help allergies. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
A 2013 study from the “Internal Archives of Allergy and Immunology” tested 21 patients with food allergies for reactivity to cannabis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), which are probable allergens. Twelve of the 21 test subjects were allergic to cannabis, and all 12 had more severe reactions to food allergy than those without a cannabis allergy. A 2008 study, also from “Internal Archives of Allergy and Immunology,” tested 32 subjects for an allergic reaction to cannabis LTPs, as well as tomato, peach peel, and pollen extracts. The study found that all test subjects sensitive to tomato allergens were also sensitive to cannabis. There was also cross-reactivity noted with peach peel.
Silvers said that the type of allergic reaction depends on the type of exposure. In addition to cannabis pollen allergies and food-based allergies, skin allergies are also a possibility.
“Touching the plant can very easily develop a dermatitis, itching, and skin reactions,” he said.
Can CBD oil help with allergies?
While there isn’t much research supporting the idea that CBD oil can help the discomfort associated with common allergy symptoms, there is some research related to its general effects on inflammation, which is part of the body’s allergic reaction process.
A 2011 research report published in the journal Free Radical Biology and Medicine examined the potential role of CBD in various inflammatory-type conditions. George W. Booz, a professor in the department of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, concluded in the report: “Inflammation and oxidative stress are intimately involved in the genesis of many human diseases. Unraveling that relationship therapeutically has proven challenging, in part because inflammation and oxidative stress ‘feed off’ each other. However, CBD would seem to be a promising starting point for further drug development given its antioxidant (although relatively modest) and anti-inflammatory actions on immune cells … .”
According to Silvers, there is no clinical evidence CBD oil can help allergies and, while experimental laboratory research suggesting anti-inflammatory effects exists, there’s no clinical patient substantiation.
Can you have an allergic reaction to CBD oil? Copy article link to clipboard. Link copied to clipboard. Contents CBD oil overview Allergies in the body Allergic reactions
Bad Reaction to CBD? [When & When Not to Be Concerned]
CBD products are becoming increasingly popular among people of all demographics regardless of gender, age, and even nationality. There has also been an increase in cases of people reporting adverse effects of CBD. Some of these symptoms are considered to be side effects or sensitivity to CBD, while other symptoms may be allergic reactions to CBD.
Humans commonly experience allergic reactions to certain types of plant pollen. Since CBD originates from the cannabis plant, it’s easy to wonder whether you could be allergic to CBD, and more importantly, whether you should be concerned about it.
Bad reactions to CBD certainly aren’t common, but they are possible.
An allergic reaction can be induced by any product that the body deems to be an allergen. Most commonly, allergies occur from medication, insect stings, foods, pet dander, and pollen. Since CBD comes from the cannabis plant, CBD contains properties like histamine and pollen that could cause allergic reactions.
A bad reaction to CBD can range from an itchy nose to breathing problems – which is a lot more serious. To understand the difference between exhibiting side effects of CBD and being allergic to CBD, we need to understand the different symptoms of each. In other words, determining when and when not to be concerned about having a bad reaction to CBD, we will look at the varying degrees of having a “bad reaction.”
Bad Reactions to CBD
A bad reaction to CBD can manifest in several ways. Two people won’t necessarily experience the same symptoms. Also, it can be tricky to distinguish between a CBD allergy and the normal run of the mill CBD side effects. Remember, side effects are not considered to be allergic reactions to CBD.
Potential side effects include dry mouth, dizziness, lethargy, nausea, diarrhea, and drowsiness. Generally speaking, these effects aren’t anything to be concerned about and are typically caused by using too much CBD at once or just having sensitivity to CBD.
CBD allergies, on the contrary, have different effects. An allergic reaction transpires when the immune system overreacts to any substance that the body deems to be a threat. Here are four signs that may suggest that you are having an allergic reaction to CBD:
- Dry, Red, or Itchy Eyes: Marijuana is known for causing red eyes due to dryness. But THC is the culprit of this, not CBD. That said, some users could experience this after using CBD. If you have bloodshot eyes or experience excessive watering, it could be an allergic reaction rather than a side effect.
- Migraines: Some CBD users may experience a slight headache for the first couple of uses, but migraines are an indication of something more serious.
- Skin Irritations: Especially in the case of topical CBD products, some users may develop hives or a rash. This could be caused by the CBD, but it may also result from one of the many other ingredients found in balms and creams.
- Respiratory Problems: If you are having trouble breathing after consuming CBD, you should seek medical help immediately. Breathing issues linked to CBD products are likely the result of poor-quality products that contain contaminants, such as mold or pollen.
Exploring CBD side effects…
What Makes a Person Allergic to CBD?
If you’re wondering why anyone could be allergic to CBD, the short answer is histamines.
Histamines are hormones that are secreted by mast cells in the body. Mast cells form part of the body’s immune system and are located throughout the body. The moment the mast cells notice any foreign substances in the body, it repels them by secreting histamines. As a result, the body triggers a range of reactions. They range from skin irritations and rashes to sneezing, coughing, watering eyes, dizziness, and other symptoms that we have already addressed above.
People with plant allergies are often advised to try to avoid CBD products, especially full-spectrum ones.
Full-spectrum CBD products contain a variety of compounds, and it can be difficult to tell what caused the bad/allergic reaction. It could be plant waxes, coconut oil, trace amounts of THC, pollen, hemp seed oil, or any other ingredient in the product.
How Are CBD Allergies Diagnosed?
Doctors can diagnose CBD allergies using two methods: A skin prick test or blood test. The skin prick test is simple, and you get results quickly, but it’s not as accurate as a blood test.
With a skin prick test, a diluted allergen, like CBD, is applied to the skin with a needle. You wait 15 minutes and check if the area on which the CBD was applied appears to be red, inflamed, or itchy. If this is the case, you may be allergic to CBD.
A blood test, on the other hand, is when a sample of blood is drawn to check if there are any CBD antibodies present. In the case of there being more antibodies than expected, you are likely to be allergic to CBD.
Final Thoughts on a Bad Reaction to CBD
CBD is known to be a natural, safe, and well-tolerated compound. For the most part, there is nothing to be concerned about when it comes to the potential side effects of CBD. However, there is a cause for concern for those who have an allergic reaction to CBD. Especially in cases where you experience difficulty breathing.
For this reason, you should be careful when consuming CBD. It’s a great idea to begin with a small amount of CBD to check if you notice any adverse side effects. You should also consult with a doctor to check if they can give you any medical advice regarding what to do if you experience an allergic reaction.
Also, keep in mind that although the general side effects of CBD aren’t believed to be all that harmful, CBD is still a fairly new compound, and research is still being done to determine how exactly CBD could affect users.
Most people take CBD without any adverse effects, but in rare cases, a bad reaction can occur. Here's when you should be concerned…